An Overview of Diabetic Nephropathy

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Pharmacology, Toxicology and Biomedical Reports,2015,1,3,104-110.
Published:20th Aug 2015
Type:Review Article

An Overview of Diabetic Nephropathy

Rajavel Varatharajan1,2*, Jaganathan Saravanan3, Ivy Chung2 and Nor Azizan Abdullah2
1Unit of Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy, AIMST University, Semeling, 08100 Bedong, Kedah Darul Aman,
2Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
3Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, School of Pharmacy, Kuala Lumpur Metropolitan University College,
Jalan Raja Laut 50350, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.


Diabetic nephropathy is one of the common complications of diabetes mellitus that has become the leading cause of endstage renal failure in many developed countries. In general, 1 of 3 diabetic patients is developing diabetic nephropathy. High blood pressure, high cholesterol and smoking are increasing the risk of development of diabetic nephropathy. Many factors involving in the development of diabetic nephropathy, which includes oxidative stress and non-enzymatic sources of oxidative stress. In early stage, diabetic nephropathy has no symptoms and it make take 5-10 years to appear the kidney damage begins. Glomerular basement membrane thickening and mesangial expansion are the main morphological features of the diabetic nephropathy. This can be treated or modified with angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin II receptor antagonists and antioxidants. The main objective of this review is to discuss about the pathogenesis and pharmacotherapy of diabetic nephropathy.